Modern human originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago. About 100,000 years passed away when we started migrating to the other parts of the globe. At that point the global population was less than 1 million, which expanded up to about 170 million by 1 AD that took about 10,000 years after the invention of organized agriculture.
Since then many things happened in our modern human history. The big empires such as Roman and Han started to form. The golden age of India started at about 500 AD with highest population concentration in that region. Mayans in South America came in shape at about 650 AD with 1 million people and soon after that the Islamic era began in the Middle East. Then small pox hit Japan (~750 AD); China invented gun powder (~830 AD) that modernized military forces; invention of navigation compass (~1050 AD) boosted world exploration; Mongol empire formed (~1200 AD) that expanded over much of the Asia; worldwide plague (~1350 AD) caused huge decline in population; Europeans arrived in South America (~1430 AD); the beginning of trans-Atlantic slave trade (~1520 AD) that shaped modern Black history; industrial revolution began around 1780 AD that brought in modern technology and medicine that helped global population rise; the World War I and II (1914, 1939) devastated much of the European countries including US, Japan and Australia; and after all these havoc and independence from colonization, multiple treaties been ratified by most of the countries, the education, technology and medicine had spread across the globe, and the population rise was substantial thereafter. Now we have more than 7 billion population which is expected to rise up to 11 billion by 2100.
To reach 1 billion population our world took 200,000 years, but reached to 7 billion by last 200 years only! If we keep our fertility rate lower than now (currently 2 children/woman) we can reduce the unsustainable consumption of natural resources and help the planet to be healthier than now, therefore help human and other species survive for more years than currently expected.
The American Museum of Natural History has tracked all the above mentioned population history for last 100,000 years and made this fascinating video for educational purpose!